What is the most common bleeding disorder in adults?

Author: Succeeder    

Hemorrhagic diseases refer to diseases characterized by spontaneous or mild bleeding after injury due to genetic, congenital, and acquired factors that result in defects or abnormalities in hemostatic mechanisms such as blood vessels, platelets, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis. There are many hemorrhagic diseases in clinical practice, and there is no such term as the most common. However, the more common ones include allergic purpura, aplastic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukemia, etc.

1. Allergic purpura: It is an autoimmune disease that, due to various stimulating factors, stimulates the proliferation of B cell clones, causing lesions in small blood vessels throughout the body, leading to bleeding, or may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, and joint swelling and pain;

2. Aplastic anemia: Due to drug stimulation, physical radiation, and other factors, defects in hematopoietic stem cells occur, which affects the immune function of the body and the microenvironment of hematopoiesis, is not conducive to the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, can cause bleeding, and accompanied by symptoms such as infection, fever, and progressive anemia;

3. Diffuse intravascular coagulation: can be caused by various etiologies, activating the coagulation system. In the early stages, fibrin and platelets accumulate in the microvasculature and form blood clots. As the condition progresses, coagulation factors and platelets are excessively consumed, activating the fibrinolytic system, leading to bleeding or accompanied by symptoms such as circulatory disorders, organ dysfunction, and shock;

4. Leukemia: For example, in acute leukemia, the patient experiences thrombocytopenia and a large number of leukemia cells form leukemia thrombi, causing blood vessels to rupture due to compression, leading to bleeding, and may be accompanied by anemia, fever, lymph node enlargement, and other conditions.

In addition, myeloma and lymphoma can also lead to coagulation dysfunction, causing bleeding. Most patients with hemorrhagic diseases will experience abnormal bleeding on the skin and submucosa, as well as large bruises on the skin. Severe cases of bleeding may also present with symptoms such as fatigue, pale face, lips, and nail beds, as well as symptoms such as dizziness, drowsiness, and blurred consciousness. Mild symptoms should be treated with hemostatic drugs. For severe bleeding, fresh plasma or component blood can be infused as necessary to supplement platelets and coagulation factors in the body.